In Part 1 of the article “How the Caribbean can leverage the European Union’s quest to promote and develop a ‘Data Economy’” an overview was provided of the European Union’s vision for the development of an agile data economy. In Part 2 we will identify how the European strategy can be used in the Caribbean to drive digital transformation and perhaps create a new international services sector in the region.
In this article we will focus on two aspects to leveraging the European approach for a data economy:
- Mirroring the European approach to create a data economy in the Caribbean
- Utilizing existing trading opportunities to provide service to the European market
Mirroring the European approach to create a data economy in the Caribbean
According to European Commission figures by 2025 the European digital data economy will be worth €829 billion. This figure is based on the potential market size in Europe Union with a population of 446 million people.
Depending on what is considered to be the “Caribbean market” the market size could be 18.5 or 28.5 or 285 million, depending on whether you take account of only the CARICOM block of countries, the CARIFORUM block or the Association of Caribbean States block of countries. Based on the EU figures that cloud provide a digital data economy of between €34.4 billion, €60 billion or 529.7 billion. Of course this is a simplistic calculation as factors such as ICT maturity, GDP, etc. would need to be considered. However, it can be seen that the potential near-digital-data-market for the Caribbean will be of significant value to regional economies.
But to tap into this market the region needs to adopt a similar approach to the EU as outlined in the Part I of the article “How the Caribbean can leverage the European Union’s quest to promote and develop a ‘Data Economy’” and in the European Commission publication “A European Strategy for Data”. There is a need, as with the EU, to create, as a matter of urgency, a Caribbean-based cloud infrastructure. Indeed taking the section “Where does cloud computing fit into this strategy ?” one could simply replace the term “EU” with the “Caribbean” or “CARICOM” and the issues would be very relevant, such as:
- Locally based cloud services providers only a small share of the local cloud market,
- Reliance on external cloud service providers
- Service may be subject to legislation of third countries, which presents a risk
- Low cloud uptake both at public and private sectors
- There is frequently insufficient visibility in the market for smaller local providers of innovative cloud services.
In addition to strengthening the necessary ICT infrastructure, the region will also have to significantly strengthen its educational processes to ensure the necessary qualified workforce is available to take advantage of this emerging Industry 4.0 sector.
A region-wide approach to GDPR-type legislation would also be needed. This will ensure that a region-wide digital data economy will operate of the same legislative base no matter where data is stored or processed within the region.
Utilizing existing trading opportunities to provide service to the European market
Access to the EU market for services, including ICT services, is covered under the ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT between the CARIFORUM States and the European Community and its Member States (as part of a wider ACP-EU EPA12 process). As outlined earlier in this article this is a market with a potential €829 billion value by 2025.
However, for the Caribbean or any other non-EU country/region to access this market it must meet EU GDPR standards. To this end the EU has engaged in what it terms “digital Diplomacy”. This allows non-EU countries, that the EU deems as providing adequate levels of protection for personnel data, provide digital data services to the EU market. Recognition by the EU ensures that data exchanges between recognized countries and EU Member States are treated as intra-EU transmissions of data.. Currently the EU recognizes twelve (12) countries, as meeting its standards, none of which come from the Caribbean region.
As already outlined the EU has identified the need to significantly expand European cloud computing environment. Reliance on the current big cloud firms (which happen to be USA based) is regarded as a significant risk to the development of a European Data Economy. This presents a great opportunity for the Caribbean to utilize the current EPA with the EU to provide such services.
If the Caribbean region can recognize that commercial cloud services provision presents a very significant opportunity to create a visionary Industry 4.0 knowledge sector, then a regional strategy must be developed covering technology, educational and legal requirements to avail of this opportunity.
It will mean a willingness:
- By the public sector to utilize local commercial cloud service providers
- To orientate education from primary to tertiary for the provision of a qualified workforce for the digital data economy
- To develop a regional approach to the legislative base, which is currently being developed at national level.